Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment

Hideaki Shibata, James N. Galloway, A.M. Leach, Lia R. Cattaneo, Laura Cattell Noll, J. W. Erisman, Baojing Gu, Xia Liang, Kentaro Hayashi, Lin Ma, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Graversgaard, Deli Chen, Keisuke Nansai, Junko Shindo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Azusa Oita, Ming-Chien Su, Shin-Ichiro Mishima, A. Bleeker. 2017. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment. Ambio. 2. March. 46
Soort document: Wetenschappelijk artikel
Taal van het document: Engels
Abstract / summary in English:

Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita−1 year−1. The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries’ N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).

Keywords in English: Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen effects, Nitrogen footprint, Nitrogen use efficiency